ASHTANGA YOGA AS A ROOT PATH OF YOGA
1 Apr 2021 HYN Himalayan Yoga Academy
ASHTANGA YOGA AS A ROOT PATH OF YOGA
Basically, there are two types of yoga: one is external and the other is internal. In terms of meaning, the first four of these eight types of organs are called external yoga and the remaining four are called internal yoga. But looking at Bhav Pradhan, generally Yama, Niyama, Asana, and Pranayama are considered as external yoga, Pratyahara as the bridge between, and the other three concepts, concentration, meditation and samadhi as internal yoga. Looking at the whole purpose of yoga, the first five are also called Hatha Yoga and the second three are also considered as Raj Yoga. Among the successes, the first two yams and rules are considered moral basis and the third and fourth are also considered physical basis.
YAMA AND NIYAMA AS A ETHICAL PRACTICE:
Ashtanga I. Yama is the first part of the path. Yama is a social and cultural practice. Even if a person follows this rule, it will have a direct impact on the society. Society itself is bad. The result is how people treat others. What kind of social environment is created around etc. falls within the yum. It has five sub-categories.
A. Ahimsa (Non-violence): Physically, mentally, emotionally, socially not harming, not hurting, not hurting, not killing, etc. This compound is the first important human quality of life. At least if this quality is followed, other qualities or characteristics will develop naturally. There are two sides to non-violence, one is peace and the other is love. The spirit of peace and love must survive in society.
B. Satya (Truth): It is said in the Vedas that “Om Astoma Satgamaya” is the divine power, Paramatma, to guide us from untruth to the path of truth. Mind, word, deed is not to lie. Once you tell a lie, you have to resort to lies for the rest of your life to hide and suppress it and live a life of stress. Satyam Sevam Sundaram is the basis of life. When you tell a lie for the sake of your own interests, you have to suffer for the rest of your life. Only by following the truth will life be successful and blessed.
C. Asteya (Non stealing): It is not to steal anything. Whether it is wealth, whether it is goods, whether it is intelligence, whether it is exploitation, it is Asteya. Corruption, black market, embezzlement, profiteering, etc. are the opposite. The fruit of theft makes you sick, makes you a victim, and deprives you of sleep. It is an obstacle in the life of happiness and joy.
D. Brahmacharya (Natural Attributes): Keeping the senses under control and restrained and being fully disciplined is Brahmacharya. Following the rules is to create a spirit and conduct like the spirit. According to some beliefs, not getting married, not having sex, is a spiritual act. But this cannot be considered complete. It is a spiritual act to follow the rules of creation, the laws of the body, the laws of nature. Where restraint, patience, longevity, equality, spiritual consciousness are developed, celibacy is followed. All unnatural acts, bad habits, artificial karmas, and illegal works are not Brahmacharya. Brahmacharya means completely the attributes of Brahma or self.
Acting against social norms, sexual arousal, crime, immorality, excessive sexual intercourse, and suffering from sexual intercourse is not the observance of celibacy. It is also considered celibacy to be aware of the eight types of sexual intercourse such as remembrance, kirtan, keli, observation, secret speech, resolve, perseverance and sexual intercourse. Wrong habits like smoking, alcohol, addiction, gambling is also contrary to spiritual practice.
E. Aparigraha (Non-acquisition): Non-acquisition of wealth, material possessions in excess of necessity is non-acquisition. Needs and aspirations are different. It is better to pay attention to the need, it falls within the non-acquisition. Aspiration gives dissatisfaction. Parigraha gives momentary happiness but does not give happiness and joy. Unnecessary collection increases inequality, unrest, violence, corruption, theft, robbery, murder, deprivation, suffering and insecurity in the society. The rights of others are taken away. There will be a big hole for the rich and the poor. Inequality, bad and polluted environment is created in the society. Slave attitudes increase.
This does not mean that you should not earn. You can earn in the right way based on your ability, qualification, skill, art, knowledge, experience. But by investing more in the society, social feeling, service, duty, happiness should be made the primary objective and not to make money anyway, it is a crime to have the attitude of destroying rather than contributing to the society. It can never be unattainable.
Apart from these five yams, the Upanishads also mention kindness, victory, forgiveness, patience, snacking, and defecation.
2. NIYAMA (Self Rules):
There is a rule as the second part of the eightfold path. The rule is purely personal conduct. One has to follow one’s own conscience and move oneself and the society forward in the right way. The rule is the discipline of the person. The rule has the role of making the person moral, well-mannered, and good citizen by giving the right conduct.
We cannot imagine a healthy, successful, and long-lived life without following the basic rules of law. The rule also has five appendages.
1. Saucha (Defecation): Yoga Sutra is a philosophy. Philosophy provides a deep and comprehensive thinking and perspective. Defecation is an unlimited subject and process in itself. Physical-internal and external, mental, emotional, moral, social, cultural, environmental, professional, political, etc., in any form of purity is the rule. From cleansing to character and spiritual purification are indicated. Just as in Hatha Yoga, certain karmas and numbers are given in the form of six karmas, but in the philosophy of yoga, the door is left open.
2. Santosha (Satisfaction): “Satisfaction is the ultimate happiness:” Satisfaction is the ultimate happiness, the ultimate happiness. Whatever it is, you have to be satisfied. Not in how much. If you are not satisfied, you cannot be happy with the court, high position, big company, convenient vehicle. If there is contentment, there is also heaven in the cave, Kutti. Happiness is not something that can be bought by going outside, it should be found inside. Not found by searching Google, It can be found by searching for a master or by opening one’s mind.
3. Tap (Austerity) : Tap is an important Vedic instrumental word. In Sanatan times, meditation and sadhana were called tapa or tapasya which was done for attaining samadhi, yoga or kaivalya. Later, the same sadhana was addressed by yoga as a whole. Asceticism refers to deeds done out of reverence. The physical activity done for the sake of a disciplined life with strength, devotion and morale is called asceticism. A person who is refined, accustomed, tolerant, and hard-working is called Tapiye. Tapa is also considered a part of Kriya Yoga. This is a kind of Karma Yoga.
4. Swadhyaya: Swadhyaya is to study the ‘self’, that is, one’s own. Divinity is attained only by studying oneself. Everything can be found within oneself with one’s awareness. If you see sorrow while studying yourself, that is the destruction. If you see the light, it grows. And you can be blessed by reading our Sanatan Vedas, Upanishads, Yoga Darshan, and Guru Vachan. One can know oneself, but even then one gets happiness to a certain extent. This is a kind of knowledge yoga.
5. Ishwar Pranidhan: Ishwar Pranidhan is to surrender, to serve, to love, to be in Paramatma, Prakritima, Guruma, Ishta Devata, Bhakti, Sadhana with Atma Bhav. Ishwar means man or the ultimate consciousness, God, the invisible force that sustains this creation and runs this existence. Worship the same God. Let’s pray This is a kind of devotional yoga.
In the Trishikhibrahman Upanishad, apart from these, Astik, Bhav, Dan, Bhagwat Dhyana, Vedanta Shravan, Lajja, Mati, Jap, and Vrat are also mentioned as appendages of the rules.